2 Nisan 2017 Pazar

The Story of English - İngilizce'nin Tarihi (1986)

Uzun bir belgesel serisi olarak yıllar önce seyretmiştim. Kitap olarak da yayınlandı. İngilizce'nin başından geçenleri adım adım izlerken bugün geldiği yere ulaşmasının hiç de kolay olmadığına şahit oluyorsunuz. Ucundan kıyısından İngilizce'ye merakı olanların kelimelerin kökenleri ve farklılaşmasına yönelik bilincini arttıracak önemli bir çalışma. Çok şey öğreneceksiniz.


For 3 hundred years, English was forced to underground

Language of Freezeland in Netherlands and the English have common words due to their same germanic language family.

In 5th century, a germanic tribe (also including jutes, anglos, and saxons) came to freezeland for land.

Germanic tribes weren’t the first to invade our shores. Romans came by the sea more than 5 centuries before but after the crumbling of their empire they abandoned the islands to its natives: Kelts and Britons.

Germanic tribes slaughtered Kelts and forced them to go northward. Called them wilas which is known as wales today (meaning outlander).

Tor = Peak in Keltic.
London is keltic also.

By the end of 6th century, these germanic tribes occupied half of England. They had divided into a number of kingdoms.

Sussex, essex, wessex (saxon tribes)

East Anglia, Mercia, = Anglos

The “-ing” in modern place names (Read-ing) means “people of”
The “ton” in modern place names (Taun-ton) means “enclosure of a village”
The “ham” in modern place names (Birming-ham) means “far”

English took its first steps away from the tribal English by the revival of Christianity. During the 7th century, latin words, stone masonry, came to the Britain.

The germanics had a runic script. It was comprised of straight lines because they were carved on stones or wood.

Latin was different including curves and bows. It was written on parchment.
Latin became scholar language while people speak of old english still.
We find old english written on parchment.
Also old english was started to be written by latin script (latin harfleriyle ama İngilizce. Fransızcayı Arap alfabesiyle yazmak gibi).

Beowulf is the first great poem in English language. Before 10th century. Its about germanic tribes. Grendel is his arch enemy. A monster.

Ban-huv = bone house = body

In 8th century, pagan Vikings started to sack Chrstian establishments of Britain (eastern coast).
In 9th century, they left a great army in Eastern Anglia. They were called as “Danes”.

The language of the invaders (Old Norse language) started to spread. Old English was facing the fate of the Keltic language. North (Northcumbria) and east of Britain was invaded except the West (Wessex).

Great King Alfred in Wessex (His capital city, Winchester). Only monarch titled as “Great” in English history. He was first defeated. Run away to Somerset marhes and invented guerilla war agains the Danes.
Guthrun ile savaşmış.
He defeated them. Signed a treaty. Britain was divided into 2: Wessex and the northeastern land (Danelaw).
After the peace, Danes started to work. Communities and languages mixed. English started to absorb Danish.

Place names ending with “-by” comes from Danish “-fy”

-thorpe, -waite ( a portion of land).

Harri-son, Gib-son, Hud-son, Dickin-son, Simp-son, Wat-son. All came from Danish language.

Beck – stream

Garth – paddock

Northern provicnes still use old norse words as dialect.

Influence of old Norse was not just local. We still use them.

Score (Skor), Sky (Sky), Anger (Angr), Knif (knife), Neck (Hnakki), Root (rot), Skull (skule), Window (vindauga).

“-sk” sound is borrowed from Old Norse.

Some old Norse words lived along with Old English counterparts and assumed a slightly different meaning:

Old English         Old Norse

Craft                    Skill

Hide                    Skin

Sick                    ill

More Old Norse words: law, egg, husband, leg, die, ugly
They, there, them

Old Norse affected Old English more than any other language. It also influenced it in a grammatical way.

e.g.: King gave horses to his men

In Old English, you add “um” to the end of the word you mean instead of using “to”. In time, prepositions like “to” started to be used. Blending with Old Norse accelerated this transition.

During the period of Alfred, there were not many monks who could understand or teach latin (due to a century of war with Vikings). He did not choose to revive the latin education for priests and clergy. Because people wouldn’t understand the latin. He continued to use latin in clergy but added English too. Opened the way for English.

He had 5 books translated from Latin to English. Copies were sent to 12 bishops in his country to be spreaded out. HE also sent a specially designed underliner tool.

He literally established a publishing house and commisioned “Angle-Saxon Chronicles”. He died in 899.

By the middle of the 11th century, English was strong but face to face with the greatest threat ever. Normans started to land on Britain in 1066 (William the Duke of Normandy). English King Edward the Confessor had spent a lot of time in Normandy and named William as his successor.

Hastings War. William prevailed. Harold was killed.

It was named as Hastings Battle (Battle was a Norman word).
Harold was the last of the English speaking King for 3 centuries.
William was crowned. He spoke French. A new language was in authority in england.

Norman (Old French) language: The words entered English were mostly governmental terms: Enemy, castle, army, archer, soldier (soudier), garrison, guard, crown, throne, court, duc, baron, nobility, paysant, vassal, servant, govern, treaty, liberty, felony, arrest, judge, justice, condamn, acquit, accuse, sentence, prison jail (gaiole), prison (prisun), city, market, salmon, oyster (oistre), pork, sausage (saussiche), bacon (bacun), fruit, tart, biscuit (bescoit), sugar (çucre), vinegar (vyn egre),

By Blood, Normans were from the same stock as Danes.
Its been estimated that after 3 centuries of the conquest, 10.000 French words colonized the English language.
500 hundred words alone dealing with cooking and eating entered . 

The native ruling class was replaced (slaughtered, banished, or disinherited) with William’s followers. None of those great landowners spoke English.
Latin and French became the language of government, church, history, and law. English was forced underground.

In 1077, William the Conqueror ordered “White Tower” to be built as the symbol of Norman rule (part prison, part treasury, part palace, part fortress). On the banks of Thames in London.

The tradition of “AngloSaxon Chronicles" vanished due to French governors and abbeys.
90% of population spoke English. It evolved during the conquest years.
While the ruling lords used French, the serfs (another French word) lived in cottages and used English. But the border between two languages melted away.

Mews = Bird house
Falconry words came to English from French (e.g. leash and codger)
Apple meant all kinds of fruit in Old English, but when fruit comes from French, apple is used to specify a certain fruit.

French did not ousted Old English out. It caused the meaning of English words to narrow.
Old English names changed too:

French: John, William, Simon, Robert, Richard, Steven, Jeffrey
Why French couldn’t engulf English totally?

One reason is, Frech speakers got cut off from their culture and language of the mainland Normandy. Normans lost their kingdom to a smaller kingdom, France. After this, their French language began to lose its grips on Old English. Normans began to merry in England. That was the turning point for English. French language started to die but French vocabulary streamed into the English. Words assumed slightly different meanings than their similar counterparts (eg: room – chamber, begin – commence, answer – respond, liberty - freedom). They were interchangeable but fine differences they had. Shades of meaning, a layering effect observed. In other words, Frech equipped English for its important role to come.

England, Normandy, Aquitaine

Şah mat = King is dead in arabic.

There was no Normandy anymore. Normans in England began to feel themselves true Englishmen.
Latin was the trade language and French + Latin was the language for state affairs. When French King Philip threatened England by invasion in 1295, Edward the first used English language to galvanize nationhood and support among people. After late 1300s, English rose again. It was the common denominator language of England.

In the late 1300s, ships from mainland brought the “ratus ratus” black rat which has the plague germ “pasteurella pestis”. Quarter or third of 4 million English population died. In some places, whole communities were wiped out. As a result of the plague, latin speaking clergy was almost reduced by half. Many of their replacements only knew English.

After the black plague, England was a very different place. The surviving strongman had the chance to claim for better wages and work conditions. There was shortage of workers. Property prices fell. Wages elevated. Working people had opportunities thay never had before. Common people rose in the society and they took their English with them.

By 1385, English replaced French in schools. It found place in the state and law. Therefore, demand for books in English rose as well. In 1382, first time in 3 centuries, parliament was opened in English in West Minister. Since the defeat of Harold in Hastings in 1066, no King had spoken English. King Henry 4th became the King.

Canterbury tales (unfinished) of Chaucer (çoğsır) are the stories of this age (late 1300s).
Chaucer was the first to be buried in the “Poet’s Corner” in Westminster Abbey.

He made Southern English, the standard English.
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