LIBERTY LEADING THE PEOPLE (Önderimiz Özgürlük)
Delacroix'nın 1830 devriminde ortaya çıkardığı meşhur tablosunun anatomisi, siyasi ve toplumsal arkaplanı, çözümlemesi, Fransa'nın sembollerinden biri olmasına giden yolda karşılaştıkları anlatılıyor. BBC'nin "Şaheserlerin Özel Yaşamı" (Private Life of a Masterpiece) isimli serisinden bir bölüm. Bu seri 2001 yılında yayınlanmaya başlandı ve şimdiye kadar 29 bölüm yayınlandı. Her bölümü bir sanat eserine ayırıp hikayesini anlatıyorlar. Bu bölümde müziklerin yetersiz ve uyumsuz kaldığını not düşebilirim.
“Liberty is beautiful, but it is not a comfortable position.”
“Liberty is beautiful, but it is not a comfortable position.”
It’s the image of revolution in art
Eugene Delacroix was not a person of revolution. Hayattan zevk almaya bakmalı havasında.
This is the revolution of July 1830 (replacing a tyrant king with a more liberal one), not 1789 which sent the King and Queen to guillotine
He painted that when he was 32 years old.
La liberté guidant le peuple by Eugene Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution. Katılacak güç yok ama romantik tarafı hoşuna gidiyor. Sokaklardaki tehlikeden nefret ediyor. İzleyici. Notre Dame’a Fransız bayrağı asılırken Alexander Dumas heyecanla alkışladığını görmüş.
Red, white and blue sing out of the painting. Delacroix walked on the streets during revolution and saw french flag floating on top of notre dame. Bu bayrağı büyüterek resmine koyar.Fransız devriminde tricolor bayrak ilk kez çıkar. Napolyon Waterloo’da yenlşince ortadan yok olur. 1830’da yine bu bayrak kullanılır.
Delacroix’s father served Napoleon as his foreign minister. Restoration of the monarchy ile ailesi servetini kaybetmiş.
1830 devriminden 3 ay sonra başladı resme. After July revolution, letter to his brother: “ My bad mood is vanishing, thanks to hard work, if I havent fought for my country, at least I will paint for her.”
Size: 9 feet by eleven, he sawed 3 canvases together to achive this largeness
He painted it in 3 months
Neoclassicist resimlerden çok farklı. Brushwork belirgin. Neoklasizmdeki gibi temizlenmemiş.
Banner of tricolor: liberty, equality, fraternity
Antoine Jean-Gros, favorite painter of Napoleon. Tablolarındaki cesetlerden esinlenmiş. Delacroix resmien başlarken, Gros’unn bir sergisi açılmış.
Delacroix hayran kalır ve günlüğüne şunları yazar: “Gros dared to make real corpses. He knew how to paint sweat and piles of bodies amidst the dirt.”
|Antoine Jean-Gros tablosu|
Resimdeki royal guard killed by the revolutionary mob. The figure was probably inspired by this painting of a soldier, a work Delacroix saw when he visited the artist on deathbed: Theodore Gericault. One of the strangest geniuses of French art. 32 yaşında ölmeden önce was convulsed by a gruesomely realistic vision. Buradan “The Raft of the Medusa” (1819) çıktı ve arkadaşı Delacroix’ya da yer verdi salda. Ölü adam Delacroix.
The soldier in liberte painting is the soldier in the portrait of Gericault.
In raft of the medusa, the model of the front figure faced down while exposing his splendid mane and nape, was Delacroix.
Gericault took an event of modern life and turned into sometihing monumental and classic. An epic tale as such in Greek or Roman times.
The idea of turning a comtemporary event into a mythical image had been successfully made by Gericault.
|The Raft of the Medusa|
|Delacroix'yı resmeder bu karakterde|
Academic artists use a big triangle to organize a large scale painting. The fist in Liberty holding the flag was the apex of the triangle.
Charles Xth 6 senedir Royalist bir hükümetin başında. Basını susturma ve newly elected assembly’yi dağıtmaya karar verince Paris isyanda.
As for location, this is not a literal scene meaning depicting actual locations as the same.
Çatışmaların merkezi Pont d’Arcole (köprü).. Rev forces townhall’u ele geçrimek için köprüyü geçmeye çalışıyor. Delacroix muhtemelen burayı resmediyor, arkada Notre Dame gözükmese de.
A Greek goddess clutching a modern rifle. Mitoloji ile güncel yaşam bir araya geliyor.
Since 1792, France was represented by a woman in classic dress. She wore a phyrgean bonnet (cap). The symbol of freedom for the slaves of ancient Rome.
The Phrygian cap is a soft, red, conical cap with the top pulled forward, worn in antiquity by the inhabitants of Phrygia, a region of central Anatolia. In sculpture, paintings and caricatures it represents freedom and the pursuit of liberty.
The cap was especially adopted during the French Revolution along with other symbols adopted from Classical antiquity to this day the national emblem of France, Marianne shown wearing a Phrygian cap. The bonnet rouge, which eventually appeared on almost every conceivable manufactured article, made its appearance early in the Revolution.
Marina Warner – Monuments and Maidens, author
“Something desirable is depicted as half-naked women, this personification of virtues or justice, dates back to ancient Greece. But Delacroix gave this figure a gun and drew her very realistically “
Kimi model aldığı bilinmiyor. 1830 devriminde broşürlerde ve sokaklarda kadınlar ciddi bir role sahip.
Auguste Barbier (The Scramble for the Spoils) bu dönem liberty’nin kibar ve kokoş bir kadın değil, kanlı canlı ve tutkulu bir kadın olduğunu yazıyor şiirlerinde.
Before depicting liberty as a revolutionary woman on the streets, delacroix depicted Greek independence war against Turks. In his drafts, we can see the image of liberty as a woman.
Delacroix 1820’lerde drew greek women not as powder skinned marble like bodies and complexion, but olive skinned Mediterranean people. Another revolution for the art of those times.Savaşı kaybediyorlar. Bir alegori resmi yapıyor. Powder puffed Greek goddess yerine eolive skin gerçekçi bir bakışı var. Buradaki eskizlerini sonra Liberty’de kullanıyor.
|Greek independence war|
|Greek independence war|
|Greek independence war|
Barriers were first erected during 1830 revolution. French people made the barricades so strong and so fast because most of them had fought in the Napoleon’s army.
First time they used barricades in a “civil war”.
Delacroix painted the barricade as the stage for the people. It was hardly seen. And he signed his name on the barricade too.
Nicholas Charlet’nin illüstrasyonundan karakter almış olabilir. Kendisi de sonradan Charlet’nin o dönem sokakların enerjisini en iyi yakalayan olduğunu söylemiş.
Delacroix was scared of the revolution, didn’t go out much, stayed home, so he mostly grabbed his characters from other painters and illustrators (particularly charley). There is almost one to one similarity between their characters (see the images).
|Nicholas Charlet illüstrasyonu|
Delacroix was depicting the lower depths of the society by high art.
After him, Toulouse Lautrec and Picasso followed him and painted prostitutes and thiefs of Paris. Bohemian revolution.
Delacroix may not have been a political radical but he was an artistic radical.
Romanticism fueled by the nature of humanity. Masses were the nature here. Its also about risking many things assumed to be important. Living on the thin line between death and heroism.
Is the corpses lying on the ground is the price of liberty?
Marina Warner: “The smoke boiling up from the city behind suggests that smoke is moving and blocking the light, like a cinematic effect,
Louis Philippe (the citizen king, as he called himself) emerged victorious from the 1830 revolution. Thousands died to bring this liberal member of the French royal family.
1831’de Palais Luxembourg’da (Paris) sergiledi ilk kez. Devlete satmayı imit ediyor sanatçılar bu sergilerde. Diğer resimlerden hemen ayrılıyor Liberty.
Delacroix’s characters carry objects taken from royal soldiers indicating a shift of power. It’s the power being shared. Also he is not trying to sanitize the ravolution and showing all revolutionaries as good people.
Delacroix hiç bir tarafa hoş gözükmeyen gerçekçi bir çalışma yapmıştı. Critics didn’t like liberty, there was no sign of highness in his paint. People were like bandits. During his time, gods and goddesses are depicted clean and above people. His goddess was strange for the critics. They said this isnt an allegory of liberty, this is a fisher woman (poissard)
Marcia Pointon: “Revolution is about ideals destroyed or compromised by reality.
It wasn’t received with pleasure. Because he depicted brave soldiers of France on the streets slaughtered, new regime wouldn’t like it either cause it would depict how they came to power. Mitoloji ayak takımının arasına karışmamalıydı sanat çevrelerine göre.
Devlet resmi satın aldı ama sergilemedi. İade ettiler.
1848 revolution sent Louis philippe back from power. He was driven into exile. Citizen king.
Bir mektbunda Rousseau’nun şu sözünün tam tersine inandığını söyler: “Rousseau sait he preferred liberty mixed with danger to peaceful slavery. “
In 1855, universal Paris exhibition’da tek başına sergi açıldı ama Liberty tartışma yaratır diye sergilenemdi. the new emperor was Napoleon 3rd. Delacroix protesto etti bu tutumu. Delacroix esas dönemn kültür bakanına isyan ediyor. The minister of culture rallied against liberty.
Sonunda kazanan Delacroix ve resmi sergileniyor. O dönem resim sergileri bugünün filmleri gibi. İktidar aykırı bulursa yasaklıyor ve gösterilmesine izin vermiyor salonlarda.
11 years after his death (1874), liberty was accepted to the louvre and he was transferred to the pantheon. Balıkçı kadın diye alaya alınan karakter sembolleşmeye başlıyor bilhassa 20.yy da.
Fransa’Nin sembolü tartışılıyor. Marianne.
On the 100th anniversary of French revolution, a gigantic bronze monument for the republic was created by Jules Dalou (Triumph of the Republic), a fan of Delacroix. He depicted liberty as in Delacroix’s picture.
|Jules Dalou (Triumph of the Republic)|
She is wearing a classical tunic as well
In 20th century, it became the emblem of the state.
In 1944 another revolution against German troops (1944) Charles de Gaulle özgürlük sonrası referandum çağrısı yapınca 1945’te, ilanın altına Liberty resminin ilüstrasyonu kondu.
In May 1968, the student movements began. Caroline de Bendern. Took part in France’s one of biggest demonstrations. Aslında kız İngiliz. Dahası aristokrat. Dedesi hemen İlgiltere’ye çağırıyor. Araları bozuluyor.
It was even used on wine and beer bottles
Printed on money
This woman was the symbol of emancipation of women for us during 80s student movements (Daniel Cohn-bandit)
The woman was revolting against a moral order that was collapsing with her breasts wide open
Reshada Crouse paid tribute to the painting in praise of South African peace, liberty as a celebration of life. The painting features the South African theatre artists. ”I painted the fight of the artists in an intellectual basis” She used a white model with paint over her. So she painted a mixed race: white-black figure. Model (Camilla Waldman) was 2.5 months pregnant which gave her breasts the look of fullness.
We see history as a series of images
Street theatre on anniversary of revolution
This is a picture coming at you, demanding something from you
Delacroix, the reluctant revolutionary, broke the rules of history painting. He painted a revolution that never ended.