29 Mayıs 2017 Pazartesi

Britanyalı Romancılar Kendini Anlatıyor E2

20.yy’da İngiliz Romancılığı belgesel serisinin ikinci bölümü
İlk bölümün linki:

Üç bölüm halinde çekilmiş bu BBC belgeselinde yirminci yüzyıl Britanya romancılığı tarihsel olarak 3 döneme ayrılmış ve her bölümde bu dönemlerden biri ele alınarak yazarların radyo ya da TV röportajlarında ifade ettikleri düşünceleri aktarılıyor. Çok başarılı bir kurgu. Yığınla bilgi. Yazarların TV görüntüleri. Özellikle İngiliz edebiyatı meraklıları için bulunmaz bir nimet. Benzerine rastlamadım.

Early 1950s
Physically and psychologically devastated Brit
Poet Auden “age of anxiety” olarak tarif ediyor bu devri.
Romanda bir duraklama var savaş sonrasında. Derken 1954 yılında yüzyılın en önemli sayılan 4 romanı birden çıkıyor.

Elderly Oxford don Tolkien bu yazarlardan biri. 62 yaşında yayınladı LOTR'u (Fellowship of the Ring).

"One ring to rule them all" lafını yıkanırken bulmuş.“I invented that in the bath I remember. I remember kicking the sponge out of the bath when I got the last line thinking “That will do all right”

“If u ever come down to any large story that interests people and can hold their attention for considerable time or make,the stories are practically always human stories and practically always about one thing arent they? Death. The inevitability of death.”

“People do not understand the difference between an allegory and an application. U can go to Shakespeare play and apply it to things in your mind but they re not allegories. Many people apply the ring to the nuclear bomb and think that the whole thing is an allegory of it. Well it isn’t. “

William Golding
Salisbury’de öğretmen, teaching philosophy, Greek and English
Bishop Wordsworth school
First novel Lord of the Flies

“I chose school boys because he wanted a subject out of his own experience and they were what he know best”

Collapse of civilization, rapid descent into savagery and ensuing violence.

“I plan a novel from the beginning right to the end before I write anything in detail. I see it in the air as a kind of boundless shape about so long from here to here. Then the detail begins to fill in and I work it out until almost the last flick of an eyelid. Then I write it through from one side to the other.

“I am not satisfied with my books. People find them pessimistic. But I’m an optimist. And if that optimism which is obvious to me as the background of my books. If that optimism doesn’t come out, then I ougt to have conveyed it more explicityl, more vividly and more improtantly.”

Iris Murdoch
Another academic writer and philosopher of Anglo-Irish descent. Paris’te existentialism revaçta (human individuality and free will).

Moral ve political philosopy alanlarına ilgili. Genelde felsefe yazarlığıma fazla etkisi olmadı ama ahlaki felsefe açısından karakterlerime katkısı olmuş olabilir”

Margaret Drabble: “U re never sure in her novels whos right or wrong, they change sides and llegiances. “

Her first novel "Under the Net" follows the fortuens of a young writer named Jake. As he journeys through the streets theatres and pubs of 1950s London overcoming a tangled web of personal relationships and financial problems. For Jake life is a philosophical voyage of discovery.

“There is a theme in Under the Net, a recurring deep theme, that is the conflict between the man who wants to be good and the man who wants to create. I think there is a conflict of character a confilict of life between those characters. Conflict between the artist and the saint.”

Savaşın ardından landslide victory of labor party. Establishment of welfare state.
Ama 1950’lerin başında Churchill yine iktidara geldi.

Kingsley Amis
KA: "1951 seçimlerinin sonucundan sonra depresyona girdim. 1945-51 arası süren sosyal devrimin bittiğini, halkın buna sırtını döndüğünü düşünüyordum.

1954’te Lucky Jim’i yayınladı. Lecturer in a Uni.

The novel tells the story of Jim Dixon. A reluctant history lecturerat a provincial uni. Who struggles through the daily tedium of his job and his life with bitterly funny consequences.

Mocks the bloombery Group

KA: “Hem Jim hem kendim socialist’iz. Ama bundan daha fazla anti-conservationist sayılabiliriz.”

KA: “Jim was my mouthpiece to say things about education and he had some harsh things to say but they were only the arts side of the uni. (history, literature). I think he’d have been more offensive if givent he chance to talk about the science side. And I should welcoem the chance of saying some harsh things about scientists and the way scientists are regarded. I think there is a great deal of ignorant bumptiousness on the part of scientists these days. And an unthinkign acceptance of the importance of the scientist in all ways. On the question of him being a hero or a villain, I think he hasn’t got a lot of the characteristics of the conventional hero. But he is certainly intended to be an admirable kind of person with a lot of attitudes and views on things and even kinds of behavior in personal relationships and so on that I’d endorse a great deal. He’s a conscientious kind of chap and in his odd way a moral chap too. ”

Aykırı yaklaşımı ve eleştirileriyle Amis’in romanı yeni bir yol açtı. The Angry Young Man adı verilen bir oyun yazarı, roman yazarı, eleştirmen cemiyeti oluştu.

Ken Tynan: “Kingsley taught us Grammar school boys how to make rudeness genuinely funny”

The Angry Young Man: Alan Tynan, Alan Sillitoe and John Braine
Bunların çoğu working class Northern cities den geldiler ve yaşadıklarını yazdılar. They brought gritty, kitchen sink realism. To the forefront of popular literature.

One the first among them was Yorkshire librarian John Braine.
Room at the Top (1957)
The tale of a working class lad determined to make a better life for himself

O dönemde (1950’ler) it was considered that there were OK places for novels to be set in just as there were certain OK people to be written a bout, and if u write a novel with a provincial setting, it was pretty well bound to be a piece of straight propaganda. Or else a “regional” novel.

Yemekteyken (angry young men) kafası iyi olunca etrafına küçümser bir şekilde bakar ve

JB: “U hate me don’t you because I never went to university” But it was a great thing to have an untutored voice and that was a tremendous contribution.”

Alan Sillitoe
Saturday Night and Sunday Morning
Catalogues the frustrations and sexual infidelities of a young factory worker in Nottingham.

"The protagonist was a rather tempestuous man with a profound discontent. What is he discontented about?"

AS: "It depends what u mean. The discontent could be the human condition which I think most of the time is discontent. And I d say this discontent often manifests itself in sort of social ways. This character for example had practically all the earthly bread he wanted. But he didn’t have any spiritual bread whatsoever. In this sense, people maybe could put on to it some sort of social importance or social meaning.

Sillitoe'nun çocukluğu bir avuç eşyalarını o kiralıktan evden diğerine taşımakla geçmiş.

Babası annesini dövermiş ve annesi “not on the head” diye bağırırmış. Sakin bir konuşması var ama. Underclass’ı yazıyor.

These working class voices represented an unsettling assault on the middle class literaty establishment. Aslında saldırı değil ki kendilerini ifade ediyorlar.

John Braine: “The point is we don’t shape events, we mirror events. And if we are good mirror and lets face it most writers are cracked mirrors, They don’t show what really happens. Everybody gets such an awful shock that it might indeed move them to do something about things.”

Alan Tynan
“I think Kinsley, Braine and John Osborne’s books all reflect a feeling that its possible to take pople of all classes seriously, their opinions, intelligence and wits especially, their attitudes of irreverece towards the established order. Kinsley’s book especially had that sort of “why the hell do I have to accept this attitude about it. I think since this book the effect has been to liberate lots of people who had shared this attitude for eyars into becoming unconscious socialists by becoming rebels and satirists.”

The Angry Young Men opened up the world of fiction to previously dispossessed voices.
The consequences would be immense.

Brit society changing. One of the obvious changes was the influx of West Indian immigrants known as the “windrush generation”. Hoş bakılmıyorlar. Several West Indian writers began to chronicle the experiences of immigrants in Brit in the postwar years.

George Lamming
Arrived to England from Barbados in 1950 was one of the first to write his experiences.

“In England nobody notices anybody else. U pass me in the street or sit next to me in the train as if I come from the next planet. “Nobody ask questions and nobody answers. Londraya geldiğinizde hemen anlarsınız . Evlerin düzen ibile People have nothing to do with oen another in London’I yansıtır. U can live and die in ur own room and people next door never say boo to u. No matter how long u inhabit that place.

“The terror of not knowing and of not even daring to call upon a single soul . I think this is the initial experience of the West Indian arriving.Loneliness. ”

Sam Selvon

“Göçmenlerin kalacak yer ya da çalışacak iş bulamamaları bir şaka gibi anlatılırdı aralarında. Şimdilerde o günlerdeki mizahi yaklaşım, o kafaya takmama kalmadı.”

Racial talk and trouble was undoubtedly on the rise.

1958’de Notting Hill’de white mobs attacked West Indian homes and violent skirmishes ensued.

Colin MacInnes’de West Indian olmamasına karşın bu konuyu işledi. Clash of Races. 1959’da Absolute Beginners.

Notting Hill race riots arkaplanı. Bir teenager’ı anlatıyor.

MacInnes: “Often by placing ur character in conditions of moral and social dificulty, u enable him or her to be tested by circumstances. “

MacInnes: “Ive alsı tried to learn from life itself, not to judge, not to pretend to know, but to be as it were a witness to the society of my own age. Okuyucularım kendi kararlarını vereblirler böylece.”

BBC’nin en önemli ktitap programı Bookstand’in dikkatini çekti. Programda bir bölümü dramatize etmişler.

MacInnes: “If u want to know what a former great power and now a dwindling minor power is really like, who better can tell you than its minorities. Who knows better? Who knows more, the master or the servant? Its always the servant. Its always the one who is exploited who knows more about the one who exploits than the exloiter knows about the exploited”

The angry young men opened up the world of fiction to previously dispossessed voices.

Britanya eski gücünü kaybetmiş. Mısır Süveyş kanalını almış. Bu ortamda Hannay ve Drummond’ın eskiden popüler olan tarzları yeniden baş gösterir.

Ian Fleming
He was a journalist when he created James Bond

A hero of the post-war world who would keep Brit great. Savaşta Fleming Naval Intel’de çalıştığı için tecrübelerinden faydalandı.

“Son savaştan sonra vahşet aletleri çeşitlendi. Bulldog Drummond tarzı bir beyzbol sopası kullanmak saçma olurdu.

Thigh –stroking kind of detailed violence
Seks ve şiddet çok tepki çekse de tutuldu ve 1966’ya kadar her yıl bir Bond macerası çıktı.

1961’de Berlin duvarı.
1962 Cuba missile crisis.

Bond gerçekçi bulunmuyor ve sorgulanıyor.

John Le Carre
JC: "I think its a great mistake when talking about espionage literature to include Bond in this category at al.. Seems to me that he is more some kind of int. Gangster. With, as it is said, a liecnce to kill. He is a man entirely out of the political context".

Le Carre A former Brit Intel officer. Bond’da glamour ve şiddet (hatta sadizm), Le Carre ise paranoya ve gündelik casusluk faaliyetleri üzerinden yürüyor.

The Spy Who Came in from the Cold 1963’te yayınlandı. Cold war Berlin hakkında.

“Duvar inşa edilirken oradaydım. İnanılmaz vahşetler yaşandı. Korkunç olaylar yaşandı. İnsanlar pencerelerden atlıyordu. Kıyamet gibi olaylardı. İnsanlar öldü, öldürüldü.

British nostalgia for power
JC: “Dinginess of decisions"a değindim.“
Spy fiction

Cold war. Atomic anxiety artışta.

Doris Lessing
Young Doris Lessing seem to articulate the thoughts of an increasingly nervous generation.
Panorama programında İçişleri bakanını fena paylamış (home secretary)
Teknolojideki hızlı ilerlemeler ve atm bombası tehdidi distopyaya yöneltiyor.

John Wyndham
The Day of the Triffids

Giant carnivorous plants

Wyndham: “The original Triffids one I think came one night when I was walking along a dark country lane and the hedges were just distinguishable against the sky. And the higher things sticking up from the hedges, became rather menacing. One felt that they might come over and strike down or if they had stings, sting at one and strike down. So that…the whole thing really grew out of that “

Wyndham: “Somebody once said that half of fantasy is the willing suspension of disbelief . Well u must not go obeyond a certain barrier if u can find it. In which that willing suspension is shattered. “

Sci-fi somehow chimes with the mood of the time

Anthony Burgess
Otherwise conventional authors such as Anthony Burgess found themselves embracing it as a means of exploring their concerns about the world.

1962’de A Clockwork Orange yayınlandı.
1960’ların sonuna doğru yeni bir obsesyonu oldu.

JG Ballard
“I think the key image of 20th century is the man in a motor car. It sums up everything. The elemtns of speed,drama, aggression. The junction of advertising and consumer goods, the technological landscape, the sense of violence and desire, power and energy, the shared experinece of moving together through an elaborately signalled landscape “

These ideas were ultimately to find expression in his best known and most conroversial book: Crash.
A novel that links car crashes with explicit sexual fetishism

Margaret Drabble: “We now see what we had to fear. Its quite interesting with the Ballard stories. What we really had to fear was not the atom bomb. But the Westway flyover. He kind of knew that on one level. That it was the cementing over of everything was more terrifiying. The ecological death of the planet was m ore terrifying than the potential of the atom bomb. Which was so terrifying that nobody touch wood, exploded it again.

As the 60s progressed, anxiety about the future subsided.Social mod was changing. Social liberalism and sexual liberation swept the country. Aided in part by the introduction of the oral contraceptive.

60s may be the women’s age in Brit fiction
Bu ortamda Doris Lessing dikkatini female sexuality’ye verdi. En önemli sayılan eseri The Golden Notebook çıktı.

Examines mental and social breakdown through the central character of Anna who seperates the different parts of her life into five color-coded notebooks.

“A friend of mine kept notebooks and they were politics, psychology, my husband, children and job. And I though that was the oddest things since when ur living alife u don’t live in this way at all do you? Its just inhuan. Theres something wrong with someone who thinks like this. “

The Golden Notebook had an extraordinary frankness about womens sexuality, responsibility. It was also extraordinarily rude about men.
Bible of women’s liberation sayılmış bir dönem

“Aslında ben böyle bir misyonla yazmamıştım. Sadece yaşadıklarımı ve tanıdığım diğer kadınların yaşadıklarını kağıda döktüm.”

Lawrence Durrell ile Röportaj (Kadınlara bakış açısı açısından)

Soru: “Your own sort of relations with women, naturally u use them in ur novels?”
Lawrence Durrell: “Yes but they re not portraits from life. Cause I’M like a Turk. I don’t believe they have souls.

Soru: Women?

Soru: No. But men have?
-Oh, Yes.

Margaret Drabble 
60larda fark yaratan kadın yazarlardan. Daha 28 yaşındayken BBC’ye bir belgesel yaptı.

“I’m solitary but Im also hopelessly gregarious. I think the two things quite often go together. “

Her ficton dealt with guilt and anxiety rather than sexual liveration.

1965’de çıktı. Tells the story of a young Cambridge graduate living in London who becomes pregnant and decides to keep and raise the child alone.

Abortion law reform. “The abortion laws were archaic and wicked. Did what I could something about it. I have a very strong religuous feling about unborn children. Ama bunu kimseye zorlayamazsınız”

“Yazdım çünkü benimkiler gibi kitaplar yoktu be bu tarz kitaplar olmasına ihtiyaç duyuyordum”
Folly-absolutism arasındaki gidiş gelişleri toplumların. Ya çok özgür ya çok sıkı.

Anti-60s novel. Bu kadar özgürlüğün sonuçları da hayırı olmayacak görüşünü içeren kitaplar.

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